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The fruit salad maker; it’s an interdisciplinary tale

Multidisciplinary = the fruit bowl (single disciplines brought together) Interdisciplinary = a fruit salad (combine disciplines together for one output) Transdisciplinary = the smoothie (disciplines transformed-new). EU EnRRICH project

A young fruit enthusiast wanted to make a fruit salad. Seeing that so many different fruit suppliers bring all sorts of fruit to her fruit bar, and many customers in return buy individual fruits, she thought she’d make something that each fruit supplier doesn’t produce by combining their supplies – a fruit salad. Besides, there seems to be a great deal of excitement over this new mixing of various fruits and everybody seems to want and encourage it.

Having sampled many different fruits over the years, the fruit salad maker decided it is a good use of her time and expertise to get into the fruit salad making business. She decided on mango, kiwi and pineapple as her fruits of choice that would make her signature fruit salad. They blend very well, they are grown locally, and they complement one another. When mixed, they not only produce an excellent taste, but they are also very appetizing to look at. Most mango, kiwi and pineapple lovers should be able to appreciate and enjoy them, the fruit salad maker thought and she started the process of combining her fruits.

“Not so fast”, came along the fruit gatekeepers. “We need to first see that your tastes for fruits, ability to make fruit salad, and knowledge of each fruit is sufficient before we allow you to open this fruit bar”. Well, it’s legally required that a fruit bar is certified after all. And on the positive side, this certificate would signify a much-needed validation and boost from the fruit community.

Not being able to open her fruit bar without the recognition required and the seal of approval, the fruit salad maker embarked on the process of fulfilling the necessary requirements to pass the necessary tests. She compiled a convincing argument for the need for fruit salads, her knowledge of three fruits, and most importantly for her personal skills and passion for mixing fruits. She demonstrated how her fruits of choice go well together, why they should be made into fruit salad and how much her customers would benefit from such combination.

She then produced the first plate of fruit salad and put it in front of the fruit gatekeepers. “I love the idea of fruit salads. We are all stuck in our special fruit echo chambers. We should all try fruit salads and appreciate those that actually make colourful fruit salads”, said the mango gatekeeper. He then tasted a big mouthful of the fruit salad before him. “It needs more mango”, he said. “I also recommend you study the history of mango production and the fine-grained detail of the biochemistry of mango to make your fruit salad better. I am afraid I can’t let you past my gate until then”, he added.

The kiwi gatekeeper, who also confessed how much he loves fruit salads, followed and had a mouthful of the fruit salad in front of him.  Like his previous colleague the mango gatekeeper, the kiwi gatekeeper seems to be solely concerned with the kiwi part of the fruit salad – not the whole combination. “Salt would really compliment the kiwis, add a pinch to bring out the flavour more. In order for me to recognize that you have used kiwi in your fruit salad, you need a lot more kiwi on your fruit salad,” he commented. “Plus, I don’t recognize the breed of kiwi that you’re using. I will give you a list of good kiwis you need to use. Until the kiwi is right, I am afraid it is my duty to not let you pass my gate. Better luck next time” he added.

Lastly, the pineapple gatekeeper scooped a spoonful of the fruit salad and tried it. “I also love the idea of fruit salads but I have to tell you that this is not how we slice pineapples over at the pineapple empire. We also marinate them in our special sauce. Your pineapples lack both. You really need to know your pineapple inside out if you are to call yourself a fruit salad maker at all. Plus, I see very little pineapple on this plate. So, get the special sauce from our empire and cut your pineapples our way. Only then can we give you our approval,” she exclaimed.

The fruit salad maker, unestablished and with much less power than the gatekeepers, felt disheartened. She tried to point out that each gatekeeper needs to look at the dish as a whole instead of focusing on each specific fruit. And, surely, the single fruit bars don’t go through as much scrutiny. Unfortunately, questioning the individual fruit experts didn’t do her any favours – they have been in their respective fruit business for much longer than she has and must surely know what they are doing. Who’s she to question their domain expertise?!

It felt as though, what they are demanding seemed too self-fulfilling and incommensurable at times. But then again, she suffered from too much self-doubt given that this is her first big attempt at making a fruit salad, to argue with their demands. Either way, if she is to get that business going, she needs each gatekeeper’s seal of approval. She went ahead and attempted to make the type of fruit salad that would satisfy each gatekeeper; with plenty of mango, huge helpings of ripe kiwi and custom sliced pineapples.

At the next round of testing, the fruit salad maker revised the plate in a manner that reflects the advice previously provided by the gatekeepers. Unfortunately, they unanimously agreed that the plate is overflooded with too much fruit, is unhealthy and is unattractive to look at. “All the excess fruit must be trimmed away,” they declared. “This is a health hazard and we cannot approve of such a dish. Think about how to make it neater, healthier and attractive and come back to us with your improved fruit salad. We will then discuss the matter and perhaps let you through our gate,” they said.

After many attempts to satisfy each of the gatekeepers version of a perfect fruit salad, the fruit salad maker is back to square one. She’s caught in a recursive loop. Each fruit connoisseur, expert on their own fruit, seems to underappreciate the taste and benefit of the fruit mix before them. Putting individual fruit experts together doesn’t necessarily make a fruit salad judge, after all.

Having gone through a number of time-consuming practices of making fruit salads and the bureaucratic paperwork associated with it, the fruit salad maker wonders if the fruit salad making business is worthwhile at all. Single fruit dealings, the dominant mode of doing business would have been simpler – not as rewarding for sure, but certainly simpler. But the thing is, once you develop the palate for the unique taste of fruit salads, nothing else will do.

 

 

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For a more scholarly read

This list is not exhaustive by any means but work that is relevant to my work and a list I revise and revisit regularly

Link for the main resources page here

Books

Weapons of math destruction: how big data increases inequality and threatens democracy by Cathy O’Neil. A great number of the article on the list below are written by O’Neil. She is also active on Twitter regularly posting links and interesting critical insights on everything to do with mathematical models and bias. Here is my own review of O’Neil’s book with plenty of relevant links itself and here for another excellent review of O’Neil’s book.

We Are Data

We Are Data: Algorithms and the Making of Our Digital Selves (2018) by John Cheney-Lippold.

Below is the first few paragraph from a review by Daniel Zwi, a lawyer with an interest in human rights and technology. Here is also a link to my twitter thread where you can read excerpts from the book that I tweeted as I read the book.

In 2013, a 41-year-old man named Mark Hemmings dialled 999 from his home in Stoke-on-Trent. He pleaded with the operator for an ambulance, telling them that ‘my stomach is in agony’, that ‘I’ve got lumps in my stomach’, that he was vomiting and sweating and felt light-headed. The operator asked a series of questions — ‘have you any diarrhoea or vomiting?’; ‘have you passed a bowel motion that looks black or tarry or red or maroon?’ — before informing him that he did not require an ambulance. Two days later Mr Hemmings was found unconscious on the floor of his flat. He died of gallstones shortly after reaching hospital.

This episode serves as the affective fulcrum of We Are Data: Algorithms and the Making of Our Digital Selves, John Cheney-Lippold’s inquiry into the manner in which algorithms interpret and influence our behaviour. It represents the moment at which the gravity of algorithmic regulation is brought home to the reader. And while it may seem odd to anchor a book about online power dynamics in a home telephone call (that most quaint of communication technologies), the exchange betokens the algorithmic relation par excellence. Mr Hemmings’s answers were used as data inputs, fed into a sausage machine of opaque logical steps (namely, the triaging rules that the operator was bound to apply), on the basis of which he was categorised as undeserving of immediate assistance.

The dispassionate, automated classification of individuals into categories is ubiquitous online. We either divulge our information voluntarily — when we fill out our age and gender on Facebook, for example — or it is hoovered up surreptitiously via cookies (small text files which sit on our computer and transmit information about our browsing activity to advertising networks). Our media preferences, purchases and interlocutors are noted down and used as inputs according to which we are ‘profiled’ — sorted into what Cheney-Lippold calls ‘measureable types’ such as ‘gay conservative’ or ‘white hippy’ — and served with targeted advertisements accordingly.

ageofsurveillance

The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: The Fight for a Human Future at the New Frontier of Power (2019) by Shoshana Zuboff

The challenges to humanity posed by the digital future, the first detailed examination of the unprecedented form of power called “surveillance capitalism,” and the quest by powerful corporations to predict and control our behavior. Shoshana Zuboff’s interdisciplinary breadth and depth enable her to come to grips with the social, political, business, and technological meaning of the changes taking place in our time. We are at a critical juncture in the confrontation between the vast power of giant high-tech companies and government, the hidden economic logic of surveillance capitalism, and the propaganda of machine supremacy that threaten to shape and control human life. Will the brazen new methods of social engineering and behavior modification threaten individual autonomy and democratic rights and introduce extreme new forms of social inequality? Or will the promise of the digital age be one of individual empowerment and democratization?

The Age of Surveillance Capitalism is neither a hand-wringing narrative of danger and decline nor a digital fairy tale. Rather, it offers a deeply reasoned and evocative examination of the contests over the next chapter of capitalism that will decide the meaning of information civilization in the twenty-first century. The stark issue at hand is whether we will be the masters of information and machines or its slaves.

Algorithms of oppressionAlgorithms of oppression: How search engines reinforce – below is an excerpt from Nobel’s book: You can also find another review of Algorithms of Oppression here. Run a Google search for “black girls”—what will you find? “Big Booty” and other sexually explicit terms are likely to come up as top search terms. But, if you type in “white girls,” the results are radically different. The suggested porn sites and un-moderated discussions about “why black women are so sassy” or “why black women are so angry” presents a disturbing portrait of black womanhood in modern society. In Algorithms of Oppression, Safiya Umoja Noble challenges the idea that search engines like Google offer an equal playing field for all forms of ideas, identities, and activities. Data discrimination is a real social problem; Noble argues that the combination of private interests in promoting certain sites, along with the monopoly status of a relatively small number of Internet search engines, leads to a biased set of search algorithms that privilege whiteness and discriminate against people of color, specifically women of color.

Screenshot 2017-09-15 at 9.09.59 PM - Edited

Algorithms to Live By: The Computer Science of Human Decisions by Brian Christian and Tom Griffiths. This book is concerned with the workings of the human mind and how computer science can help human decision making.  Here is a post by Artem Kaznatcheev on Computational Kindness which might give you a glimpse of the some of the issues that book covers. Here is a long interview with Brian Christian and Tom Griffiths and a TED Talk with Tom Griffiths on The Computer Science of Human Decision Making.

The Black Box Society: The Secret Algorithms That Control Money and Information by Frank Pasquale. You can read the introduction and conclusion chapters of his book here.  And here is a good review of Pasquale’s book. You can follow his twitter stream here.

Technically wrong

Technically Wrong: Sexist Apps, Biased Algorithms, and Other Threats of Toxic Tech by Sara Wachter-Boettcher

Here is a synopsis:  A revealing look at how tech industry bias and blind spots get baked into digital products—and harm us all.

Buying groceries, tracking our health, finding a date: whatever we want to do, odds are that we can now do it online. But few of us ask why all these digital products are designed the way they are. It’s time we change that. Many of the services we rely on are full of oversights, biases, and downright ethical nightmares: Chatbots that harass women. Signup forms that fail anyone who’s not straight. Social media sites that send peppy messages about dead relatives. Algorithms that put more black people behind bars.

Sara Wachter-Boettcher takes an unflinching look at the values, processes, and assumptions that lead to these and other problems. Technically Wrong demystifies the tech industry, leaving those of us on the other side of the screen better prepared to make informed choices about the services we use—and demand more from the companies behind them.

Paula Boddington, Oxford academic and author of Towards a Code of Ethics for Artificial Intelligence, recommends the five best books on Ethics for Artificial Intelligence. Here is the full interview with Nigel Warburton, published on December 1, 2017.

Automating inequality

“Automating Inequality: How High-Tech Tools Profile, Police, and Punish the Poor” by Virginia Eubanks is being published and will be released on January 23, 2018. Here is an excerpt from Danah Boyd’s blog:

“Automating Inequality: How High-Tech Tools Profile, Police, and Punish the Poor” is a deeply researched accounting of how algorithmic tools are integrated into services for welfare, homelessness, and child protection. Eubanks goes deep with the people and families who are targets of these systems, telling their stories and experiences in rich detail. Further, drawing on interviews with social services clients and service providers alongside the information provided by technology vendors and government officials, Eubanks offers a clear portrait of just how algorithmic systems actually play out on the ground, despite all of the hope that goes into their implementation. Additionally, Berkman Klein discusses “Algorithms and their unintended consequences for the poor” with Eubanks here.

The Big Data Agenda

The Big Data Agenda: Data Ethics and Critical Data Studies by Annika Richterich PDF available through the link here.

“This book highlights that the capacity for gathering, analysing, and utilising vast amounts of digital (user) data raises significant ethical issues. Annika Richterich provides a systematic contemporary overview of the field of critical data studies that reflects on practices of digital data collection and analysis. The book assesses in detail one big data research area: biomedical studies, focused on epidemiological surveillance. Specific case studies explore how big data have been used in academic work.

The Big Data Agenda concludes that the use of big data in research urgently needs to be considered from the vantage point of ethics and social justice. Drawing upon discourse ethics and critical data studies, Richterich argues that entanglements between big data research and technology/ internet corporations have emerged. In consequence, more opportunities for discussing and negotiating emerging research practices and their implications for societal values are needed.”

Re-Engineering Humanity

Re-Engineering Humanity by professor Evan Selinger and Brett Frischmann

Every day, new warnings emerge about artificial intelligence rebelling against us. All the while, a more immediate dilemma flies under the radar. Have forces been unleashed that are thrusting humanity down an ill-advised path, one that’s increasingly making us behave like simple machines? In this wide-reaching, interdisciplinary book, Brett Frischmann and Evan Selinger examine what’s happening to our lives as society embraces big data, predictive analytics, and smart environments.

Outnumbered: From Facebook and Google to Fake News and Filter-bubbles – The Algorithms That Control Our Lives (featuring Cambridge Analytica) by David Sumpter. A review from Financial Times, here.

 

Back to the main resources page

Situating China’s Social Credit System in history and context

If you have been following the developments in the digital humanities, it is very likely that you’ve come across the news that China is implementing a Social Credit System, officially known as Social Credit Score (SCS). Although the SCS is portrayed as a single integrated system that quantifies all behaviour into credit scores, it is in fact an ecology of fragmented initiatives with many different stakeholders. Broadly speaking, it consists of scoring systems developed by private sectors and by governmental bodies. As far as the governmental perspective is concerned, the SCS is an attempt to promote “trustworthiness” and transparency in the economy which is expected to combat perceived lack of trust in the marketplace, and more generally to harmonize social conduct.

Citizens “trustworthiness” is rated based an individual’s social behaviour such as their crime records, what they say on social media, what they buy, the scores of their friends, and so on. This has possible positive or negative implications on individual’s job, visa, loan applications. As a commitment towards radical transparency is a central driving force behind the SCS, information on subjects’ trustworthiness is made publicly available, and in some circumstances even being actively broadcast. Individual citizens and businesses alike are publicly ranked where the records are publicly open.

SCS civilized families

Roncheng’s “civilized families” are displayed on public noticeboards like these. (Simina Mistreanu)

The SCS is to become mandatory by 2020 and is currently being implemented in some form or another across parts of China. Areas that are socioeconomically deprived seem prior targets. Rongcheng in the eastern province of Shandong, where the SCS has been rolled out for some time now, is, according to government officials, one of the best examples of the system working as intended, according to government officials.

From a general systems science perspective, the SCS is a self-organizing system that operates through incentive and punishment mechanisms. People with low ratings will, for example, have slower internet speeds, restricted access to restaurants, and the right to travel invoked.

“Higher scores have already become a status symbol, with almost 100,000 people bragging about their scores on Weibo (the Chinese equivalent of Twitter) within months of launch. A citizen’s score can even affect their odds of getting a date, or a marriage partner, because the higher their Sesame rating, the more prominent their dating profile is on Baihe.” (Creemers, 2018)

The SCS has been described as an insidious digital panopticon and a dystopian nightmare where individuals’ every move are monitored and ranked through data generated from all sorts of activity and interactions, online or otherwise through digital technologies (facial recognition tools and biometric information). Many draw parallels between the SCS and the dystopian science fiction Black Mirror episode “Nosedive” where people rate each other based on their interactions.

Black Mirror rating

Many ethical and human rights issues as well as the complete eradication of the idea of privacy have been raised and the negative consequences of such a dystopian nightmare system is indisputable.

With the realization that ‘digital reputations’ could limit opportunities comes the tendency to self-censor and the tendency to be risk-averse. We are unlikely to hit “like” on a Facebook post that protests some government policy knowing that it could impact our ‘digital reputations’. Consequently, people gradually change their behaviour to align with what the system requires, to get better scores. In the process those behaviours and norms defined as “acceptable” by the government are reinforced.

Nonetheless, among the misconceptions surrounding the SCS, there seems to be some consensus that using individual’s digital traces to directly or indirectly influence individual’s behaviour is something that only happens in non-Western totalitarian states. In fact, credit scoring practices are not unfamiliar in Western societies. Facebook, for instance, seems it is developing its own system of rating users trustworthiness.

It is also worth mentioning Facebook’s emotion tracking patent (where the aim is to monitor individuals’ typing speed in order to predict emotions and adapt messages in response), which was granted in May 2017 and the currently filed Socioeconomic classifier (which might enable Facebook to rank its users according to different social classes), among its series of patents. These developments in combination with others, such as Facebook’s ability to flag individuals through its facial recognition technology without the consent of the user, in some sense constitute a surveillance society. Facebook’s ability to rank and categorize people into a variety of socioeconomic categories has possible impacts on individuals’ opportunities depending on their class, gender, race and sexual orientation. Whether its the type of job ads one is excluded from viewing (due to their gender, class or age) or the exclusion from certain housing ads, Facebook’s ranking and categorizing systems often impact the under-privileged and those who fail to conform to the status quo.

Health insurance

Marshall Allen, July 2018, ProPublica

Along social media platforms, health insurers, and schools, can also be mentioned as examples that share features of the SCS. Like the SCS, these Western industries and institutes, track and surveil people through digital technologies including face recognition tools and biometric information.

We are rated, ranked and categorized using data extracted from us. Similar to the SCS, such ranking and rating often has possible “real” life consequences whether in the form of how much we pay for our insurance, what ads are pushed on us, or how we behave in school yards. The difference between the Chinese SCS and Western tech industry is, while the former is clear and upfront about it, the latter is much more invisible. In fact, such tech giants go out of their way to hide what they are doing.

Rating systems, those by the SCS or deployed through Western tech industry, create unwanted incentives and increase pressure on individuals to conform to the status quo. This creates and contributes to a society that is risk averse.

“When doctors in New York were given scores this had unexpected results. Doctors that tried to help advanced cancer patients had a higher mortality rate, which translated into a lower score. Doctors that didn’t try to help were rewarded with high scores, even though their patients died prematurely.” Tijmen Schep

Situating the SCS in history and context

The history and context which are crucial to the development of the current SCS are often missing from how the SCS is framed, at least within in Western media .

“[social systems] must be viewed whole cloth as open dynamical systems embedded in a physical, historical, and social fabric” (Juarrero, 1999, p. 201)

As far as China’s political tradition goes, morality and authority are inextricably linked. Enforcing moral standards, monitoring and disciplining the conduct of local officials and individual citizens is seen as the role of the state. “Governing the country by virtue” equals to “governing the country by the law”. Unlike the Western legal system where rights, responsibilities and entitlement of private actors and public sectors are relatively easily categorized, such categories are much more blurred within the Chinese legal system. Individual citizens, government officials, communities and business are all expected to contribute to the whole social and economic harmony and development.

“Chinese political tradition has, for centuries, conceived of society as an organic whole, where harmony can be achieved if all its members conduct themselves as appropriate to their position in public and civil structures. … Critical in this process were ideas about systems theory, derived from natural science and applied in the social context. Influenced by Western scholarship on cybernetics and systems theory, scholars such as Qian Xuesen and Song Jian worked closely with government to develop a conceptual framework for the adoption of systems engineering techniques in governance. Particular regard was given to the role of information flows, not just towards and within government, but also as part of cybernetic feedback loops to create self-correcting responses in society.” (Creemers, 2018, p. 7)

Historically the Chinese government has experimented with some forms of social control and controlling social order through self-policing and social controlling mechanisms go all the way back to the Song Dynasty.

“An 11th-century emperor instituted a grid system where groups of five to 25 households kept tabs on each other and were empowered to arrest delinquents” Mistreanu, 2018. The current SCS then is an extension of such historical traditions. The difference now is the addition of digital technologies.

From the Chinese authorities perspective the SCS epitomizes a self-correcting feedback loop where “trustworthiness” and social morality are fostered through incentives and punishments.

This by no means is to argue that the SCS is any less of a digital panopticon. However, by highlighting history and context, often missing from the SCS narrative, we can paint a somewhat complex and nuanced image of the system (as opposed to the often alarming pieces which are stripped of context and history). Furthermore, while we are preoccupied by the stories of how China is becoming one giant surveillance prison, we miss the indirect and evasive practices that are happening within our own “civilized” Western system.

 

Bibliography

Creemers, R. (2018). China’s Social Credit System: An Evolving Practice of Control.
Juarrero, A. (1999). Dynamics in action: Intentional behavior as a complex system (p. 127143). Cambridge, MA: MIT press.

 

 

ክርስትና እና እንስታዊነት ሆድና ጀርባ በሲራክ ተመስገን

የእንስታዊነት (Feminism) እንቅስቃሴ በመሰረታዊነት ሴቷን ከወንዱ እኩል በኢኮኖሚ፣ በማህበራዊ እና በፖለቲካው መስክ ተሳታፊ እንድትሆን ማስቻል ነው። ሴቷ በፆታዋ ብቻ የሚደርስባትን መገፋት ለማስቀረት መንቀሳቀስ ነው። የእዚህ መገፋት እና አባታዊ ስርዓት በአለም ላይ መዘርጋት ክርስትና ትልቅ አስተዋፅኦ አለው ብዬ አምናለሁ። ለእዚህም ነው ብዕሬን ያነሳሁት። እንግሊዛዊው የባይዎሎጅ ሊቅ ሪቻርድ ዳውኪንስ ብዙ በተነገረለት ‘The God Delusion’ በተባለው ድንቅ መጽሀፉ ላይ የብሉይ ኪዳኑን አምላክ እንዲህ ሲል በምሬት ይገልፀዋል፡

“The God of the Old Testament is arguably the most unpleasant character in all fiction: jealous and proud of it; a petty, unjust, unforgiving control-freak; a vindictive, bloodthirsty ethnic cleanser; a misogynistic, homophobic, racist, infanticidal, genocidal, filicidal, pestilential, megalomaniacal, sadomasochistic, capriciously malevolent bully”

ፕሮፌሰር ዳውኪንስ ይሄን ሲል ግን እንዲሁ በባዶው አይደለም፤ ለእያንዳንዱ ስያሜው ከብሉይ ኪዳን መጻህፍት ጥቅስ እያጣቀሰ እንጅ፡፡ እኔም ‹‹ይሄንን ኢ–ሰብዓዊ የሆነን አካል በአምላክነት የተቀበለ ሰው ስለ መብት ሊያወራ አይገባም ›› የምለውም በመጽሃፉ የተጠቀሰው ባህርይ እጅግ ከሰብዓዊነት የራቀ በመሆኑ ነው፡፡። በዚህ ርዕስ የማነሳው የሴቶች መብት እና የእንስታዊነት (Feminism) ጉዳይም የመጽሐፉ ዋነኛ ተጠቂ ናቸው፡፡ በመጽሐፍ ቅዱስ ሴቶች ከብሉይ ኪዳን እስከ አዲስ ኪዳን ድረስ ሴቶች ተጨቋኝ ሆነው የቀረቡበት ጥራዝ ነው። አብነት እየጠቃቀስኩ ላስረዳ፡፡

የብሉይ ሴቶች

በብሉይ በእግዚአብሔር ተወዳጅ ከሆኑ ነገስታት አንዱ ንጉስ ዳዊት ነው። ይህ ሰዉ ወሲብ በጣም ይወድ ነበረ። ብዙም ዕቁባቶች ነበሩት። ሴቶችንም እንደግል ንብረቱ ቆጥሮ በአንድ ቤት ዘግቶ፣ ከማንም ሳይገናኙ እንዲሞቱ የማድረግ ስልጣን ነበረው ዳዊት (2ኛ ሳሙኤል 20:3)፡፡ በአመት ሶስት ጊዜ በሚደረገው የቂጣ በዓል፣ የመኸር በዓል እና የመክተቻ በአል ወቅት በእግዝአብሔር ፊት ለዕይታ የሚቀርቡት ወንዶች ብቻም ነበሩ (ዘጸአት፣ 23:14–17)፡፡ በሙሴዎ ዓለም የተፈጥሮ ኡደቶች (ወሊድም ሆነ የወር አበባ) ለሴት ልጅ የመርከስ ምልክት ነው። እንደዚህም ሆኖ ወንድ ከወለደች 7 ቀን የረከሰች ነች። በአስገራሚ ሁኔታ ሴት ከወለደች ዕጥፍ ቀን የረከሰች ነች መባሏ ነው (ዘሌዋውያን 12: 1–5)፡፡እግዜሩ ለሰው ልጆች ዋጋ ማውጣቱ ሲገርም ሴቶች ከወንዶች ያነሰ ዋጋ ያለቸው መሆኑ ይበልጥ ያስቃል። በብሉዩ ዓለም ከአምስት አመት ሴት ልጅ ይልቅ የአንድ ወር ወንድ ህፃን በዋጋ ይበልጣል (ዘሌዋውያን 27: 1–7)፡፡ ይባስ ብሎም ሙሴ በአምላኩ ሕዝቡን እንዲቆጥር ሲታዘዝ ሴቶች እንደሰው አይቆጠሩም ነበረ (ዘኁልቆ 3:15)፡፡ በዚህ አያበቃም እግዚአብሔር ለሙሴ በሰጠው ህግ መሰረት አንድ ሰው ቢሞት ወንዶች ልጆቹ ብቻ የንብረት ወራሾች ይሆናሉ። ሴቶች ልጆች ወራሾች የሚሆኑት ሟች ወንድ ልጆች ከሌሉት ብቻ ነው (ዘኁልቆ 27:8–11)፡፡ ድንግልና ሳይኖራት ያገባች ሴት በድንጋይ ተወግራ እንድትሞት ‹የእግዚአብሔር ህግ› ያዛል (ዘዳግም22:13–21)። በተቃራኒው ወንድ ድንግልና ከሌለው ይቀጣ የሚል ህግ ግን የለም። በአጠቃላይ የብሉይ ኪዳን ዘመን ተብሎ በሚታወቀው ጊዜ ሴት እቃ ( ) ነች እንጅ ሰው አልነበረችም፡፡ አዲስ ኪዳኑስ ምን ይላል;

ሴቶች በአዲስ ኪዳን

ከብሉይ ኪዳኑ የጭካኔ ዘመን አንፃር እየሱስ ክርስቶስ አብዮተኛ ነበረ ማለት ይቻላል። በአይሁዳውያን ዘንድ ሴቶችን ዝቅዝቅ የማድረግ ባህልን ሲጠቀም አይታይም። ሴቶችንም ያስተምርም ነበረ። በተዘዋወረባቸው ቦታዎችም ሁሉ በቋሚነት አብረውት ይከተለት ነበረ። እንደ ወንዶቹ ይፈውሳቸውም ምሳሌ ያደርጋቸዋልም። ይልቁኑ የክርትና መሰረት ነው ተብሎ ከሚነገርለት ከቅዱስ ጳውሎስ አስተምህሮ ነው አዲስ ኪዳኑ በሴቶች ላይ ሲጨክን የሚታየው፡፡ ጳውሎስ በ1ኛ ቆሮንቶስ 11:3 ላይ «ነገር ግን የወንድ ሁሉ ራስ ክርስቶስ፣ የሴትም ራስ ወንድ፣ የክርስቶስም ራስ እግዚአብሔር እንደሆነ ልታውቁ እወዳለሁ» ብሎ ሴትን በደረጃ ከወንዱ አውርዶ ያስቀምጣታል፡፡ አልፎም ለሴት ልጅ የፀጉር አቆራረጥ ህግ ያፀድቃል። ሴትም ለወንድ ሲባል የተፈጠረች እንደሆነ በግልፅ እና በጉልህ ይናገራል። ሚስቶች የባሎቻቸው ባሪያ እንደሆኑ እና ያለምንም ማመንታት ለባሎቻቸው እንዲገዙ ደንግጓል (ኤፌሶን 5:22–23)፡፡ ሴቶች ህዝብ በተሰበሰበበት ቦታ መናገር አይፈቀድላቸውም። ማወቅ የፈለጉት ነገር እንኳን ቢኖር በቤታቸው ባሎቻቸውን እንዲጠይቁ ነው እግዜሩ የሚያዘውይመክራል ጳውሎስ (1ኛ ቆሮንቶስ 14:34–36)፡፡ ሴቶች እንዲያስተምሩ አይፈቀድላቸውም። በወንድ ላይም መሰልጠን አይችሉም (1ኛ ጢሞቴዎስ 2:11–15)፤ በማለትም ‹ወንድ ወደ ችሎት፤ ሴት ወደ ማጀትን›› ጳውሎስ ይሰብከናል፡፡ ሲያጠቃልልም ሴቶች ደካሞች መሆናቸው በ1ኛ ጴጥሮስ 3:7 ላይ ይነግረናል ቅዱስ ጳውሎስ፡፡ እዚህ ላይ ነው ጥያቄው፡፡ ይሄን የመሰለ ሴቶችን እንደሰው እንኳን ለመቁጥር የሚግደረደር የጭቆና መሳሪያ ተይዞ ስለ ሴቶች መብት ማውራት እንዴት ይቻላል? መብትስ ምንድን ነው? ራስን መቃረን ደሞ በሽታ ነው። ይህን የሃይማኖት የጭቆና ህግጋት እና ትዕዛዝ አውልቀው ሳይጥሉ ‹እንስታዊት ነኝ› ማለት ለእኔ ለእንቅስቃሴው ስድብ ነው። እነደጳውሎስ ምክር ስጥ ብባልም እንደዚህ የመጽሃፉ አማኒያን ራሳቸው ‹የሴት መብት ተከራካሪ› ብለው የሚጠሩ ሰዎች ከእንስታዊነት እንቅስቃሴ ላይ እጃቸውን ቢያነሱ ሸጋ ነው ብይ ነኝ፡፡ “You can’t have your cake and eat it” እንዲሉ፤ ወይ ሽልጦውን ወይ ሆዳችንን ነው ጥያቄው፡፡ ለነገሩ እንደ ኤልዛቤት ስታንተን ያሉ ሴቶች ‘The Woman’s Bible’ ብለው ማሻሻያ ለማድረግ መነሳታቸው፤ የዚሁ የመጽሃፉ ጨቋኝነት ቢያማራቸው አይደለምን?

 

Men #mansplain feminism to me

1ahehy

I recently got into some Twitter exchanges regarding Ethiopian feminism. Seeing a bunch of men telling women that they can’t be both religious and feminists despite those women arguing otherwise, started it. Let me clarify things in a bit more detail here. Not only are you mistaken, as there are plenty of remarkable Muslim feminists, the arrogance in your tone is unbearable.  The real irony was though you failing to see the privileged standpoint which you are speaking from. A privilege that grants you to think that your opinion on feminism should be more trustworthy than the experience and say of women who live sexism and misogyny every day. I am not at all religious but one doesn’t need to be religious to see how wrong-headed it is for men to alienate and exclude women from feminism based on faith. Especially, when those women are declaring themselves feminists and providing justifications (note that they needed to) why it works for them. Do you think they need your approval to qualify as a feminist because you have problems with letting go of authority? Why should women feel they need to fit your definition of feminism to call themselves one? Do you think they need men like you to think for them and tell them what feminism is or should be? Telling a woman that she can’t be both religious and feminist is like the oppressor telling the oppressed what oppression means. If you think women need your approval and validation as they explore what feminism means to them, it is a sign that you have failed to grasp the kind of patriarchal society we live in and you are likely to be part of the problem.

I am not advocating for any strand of feminism here. Neither am I trying to define what feminism is nor who should be categorised as a woman and why. My issue is you belittling and demeaning women for saying what kind of feminism works for them and what feminism means to them. It doesn’t matter what level of education you have, or how enlightened your knowledge of feminism might be (although I highly doubt most men who think they should be in charge defining feminism know much about it at all), telling a feminist what feminism is or should be, defeats the very essence of what feminism stands for – namely women thinking and deciding for themselves. You wanting to be the central voice here not only gives you complete authority, which feminism is trying to shift, it also disregards and invalidates women’s experiences.

Do you find the idea that women can think and decide for themselves and that your input comes second indigestible? That might be because it has been the accepted norm (thanks to patriarchy) for your voice to be the dominant and authoritative one. You wanting to take the upper hand and explain what feminism is to women is an indictment of your unquestioned and taken for granted privilege as a man. It takes one to critically reflect on societal structures and one’s place in such structures to be aware of one’s own privilege.

If you think feminists central focus should be the protection of your freedom of speech, then you’ve got it all wrong. And if you can’t see why your rights aren’t the centre of attention in the feminist’s agenda, then you really are blinded by your male privilege in which case you urgently need to scrutinise those privileges.

If you truly want to contribute to the whole movement, learn to critically analyse your place as a man in society and carefully listen to what women have to say. Your knowledge is no good if it is dismissive of women who live to experience sexism every day. There can only be a common ground for discussion of your contribution to feminism when you first believe and accept that women are capable of leading their own movement and are the primary role-players as far as feminism goes.

Finally, this is aimed at those men who think that their knowledge of feminism is far superior to women’s lived experiences and say on feminism. If you are not one of them, then this post doesn’t concern you and you are most likely to agree with me here. If you are, I hope you find this post somewhat helpful in terms of clarifying issues – absent in the restricted Twitter exchanges.